关于利用分布式计算的力量进行科学研究,尤其是医学研究,已经见过多次了。不过还没有认真研究过其效果,但是其方法无论如何对互联教育体系中分布计算的学习模式和利用ScreenSaver 的学习体验都会有启发。

今天看到的这个站点也有Screensaver LifeSaver,特此留存。

模块教学方式让您在一段时间里只聚集学习一门科目,比如:您选择读了一课程,您的上课时间是18天,从星期一至星期五。一年只需学习十二门科目,每读完一门科目,也就会有三到四天的假期,然后才继续另外的科目。此外,学生们也享有冬季和秋季的假期。在SIU学习的学生喜欢模块教学方式是因为:弹性的学习时间,聚集学习一门科目,同时有机会与教授们一起参与有意的活动和研究。

这所大学有介绍关于Moudular System的一些内容

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以下的一段内容来自于一个外国留学生在SIU的经历,其中模块教学方式就是一个很好的实践。

A Student On-Campus Experience at Salem International University
一位学生在萨勒姆国际大学(SIU)学习的经历

Van Tran, a Vietnamese joined Salem International University (SIU) in January 2002.  After four months at SIU campus in West Virginia, USA, Van Tran is happy that she has made the right choice. Extracted below was a message she wrote to express her thanks to Ginny Hong, SIU Programs Counsellor.
一位越南国家的女学生(Van Tran),在2002年1月到美国西弗吉尼亚洲的萨勒姆国际大学(SIU)去深造。在萨勒姆国际大学(SIU)四个月的学习以后,这位女学生表示对自己所做出的选择感到十分高兴。以下是这位女学生向Ginny Hong(SIU课程辅导员)写的一封感激信。

Dear亲爱的 Ginny,

I’m very good. Thank you very much. How are you? 我目前很好,感谢您。您现在好吗?

My final decision is that I will study and graduate from this school. I like everything here now! The staff at school is very friendly and kind. They made me feel pleasant here. I’ve also made lots of friends ‘American friends, they are very friendly’. Its different from what people used to tell me about the American. They said that it was difficult for Asian people to make friends with the American. But here at Salem, it’s absolutely different.
我最后的决定是继续留在这所学校完成我的学习。现在我已经喜欢这里的一切。这所学校的员工们很和霭可亲。他们都令我感到十分愉快。我也交了许多美国的朋友,我的美国朋友们都非常好。朋友曾经对我所说的关于美国朋友情况却是两回事。他们曾经说亚洲国家的人若与美国人打交道将会是很困难的。但在美国萨勒姆国际大学(SIU)所认识的朋友与曾经所说的话却是完全不一样。

I took two classes that are Written English I and II. I like it very much! I can catch up with my class pretty well.  And one thing I like best is the modular system. I don’t like to take 3-4 subjects in one month. I can take only one subject a month here. And I can graduate soon also?
我所选择读的科目是英语写作第一级和第二级。我对这课程是爱不释手!我同时也跟得上课堂的课。我最喜爱的是模块教学方式。我不喜欢在一个月内上三到四科目,现在我只需要在一个月内上一种科目,而不久后我也将毕业了!

At last, I’m satisfied with my decision of choosing this university.
最后,我对自己选择的这所大学感到十分满意。

Best wishes to you and your family 祝您与家人都平安

从Wales Bangor大学的CoManTLE项目的方法论来看,他们有机地结合了本来被视为不相容的两种系统方法SSM(Soft System Methodology) 和VSM(Viable System Model),在系统的调研过程中采用了SSM,而在系统的分析和设计中采用VSM. 这种结合充分发挥了两种方法的各自优势,对其所研究的高等教育的MLE(Managed Learning Environment)非常有帮助。从我们得到的信息来看,项目的资助并不多,但是一旦找到了合适的科学方法,相信效能会比传统的瞎子探路法要有更大的成就和更好的成本。

The Cybernetic Components of the VSM
Here we give a brief introduction to the cybernetic description of the organisation encapsulated in a single level of the VSM.

A viable system is composed of five interacting subsystems which may be mapped onto aspects of organisational structure. In broad terms Systems 1-3 are concerned with the ‘here and now’ of the organisation’s operations, System 4 is concerend with the ‘there and then’ – strategical responses to the effects of external, environmental and future demands on the organisation. System 5 is concerned with balancing the ‘here and now’ and the ‘there and then’ to give policy directives which maintain the organisation as a viable entity.

System 1 in a viable system contains several primary activities. Each System 1 primary activity is itself a viable system due to the recursive nature of systems as described above. These are concerned with performing a function that implements at least part of the key transformation of the organisation. In a university then, academic departments may be regarded as examples of System 1 at the first level of recursion.

System 2 represents the information channels and bodies that allow the prmary activities in System 1 to communicate between each other and which allow System 3 to monitor and co-ordinate the activities within System 1.

System 3 represents the structures and controls that are put into place to establish the rules, resources, rights and responsibilities of System 1 and to provide an interface with Systems 4/5. In a university, System 3 would include parts of Academic Registry and other central units.

System 4 – The bodies that make up System 4 are responsible for looking outwards to the environment to monitor how the organisation needs to adapt to remain viable. There are numerous individuals in the university that perform a System 4 role, encapsulated in the committee structure. These committees make recommendations to the Vice Chancellor, Senate and Council which together constitute System 5.

System 5 is responsible for policy decisions within the organisation as a whole to balance demands from different parts of the organisation and steer the organisation as a whole.
In addition to the subsystems that make up the first level of recursion, the environment is represented in the model. The presence of the environment in the model is necessary as the domain of action of the system and without it there is no way in the model to contextualise or ground the internal interactions of the organisation

CoManTLE Research Framework: Modeling the Organisational System

The Viable System Model

在互联教育体系的研究中始终困扰的方法论问题终于有了新的发现,这就是 Stafford Beer的可生存系统模型(Viable System Model),从Bangor 大学的研究来看,这个系统模型对研究教育系统非常有效,更能够把教育体系与信息控制的理论结合起来,反映出传统教育中的问题本质和变革的障碍(尤其是对官僚体制的分析)。非常有助于利用信息通信技术的发展去渗透和变革传统的教育模式。

有关VSM的介绍在国内非常少,可以说寥寥无几,对教育系统的研究就更是门可罗雀。所以,能够把这个理论与互联教育体系的根本哲学观点结合起来,一定能够发挥巨大的方法论作用,解决实践中的诸多问题。

有关Stafford Beer 教授的介绍,可以参考这里

“Software projects often involve the management of a very high degree of complexity. All too frequently, complex issues are oversimplified to fit assumptions about how projects need to be structured. Once broken down into “simple” parts, work can proceed, with apparent progress. Unfortunately, when the attempt is made to integrate the parts together near the end of the project, the discovery is made that “the sum of the parts does not equal the whole”.

The Viable System Model provides a useful framework for an understanding of how to overcome these common difficulties.” —- Trevor Hilder, Cavendish Software

建构主义与民主管理、民主社会的趋势是完全相符的发展方向,在企业管理中有更多的实践和现实意义,所以终身学习的方法应在学校正规教育阶段就学习。

从TeachmeIT.com 网站收到合作开发e-Learning 产品的意向,这可能意味着美国的一些小型的e-Learning 公司正在面临着生存的困境。